Version: 2021.3
Language : English
Building and distributing a WebGL project
Reduce load times with AssetBundles

Build your WebGL application

To create a build for WebGL, go to File > Build Settings from Unity’s main menu. In the Platform list, select WebGL and then click Switch Platform.

When you have configured the Build Settings, choose from the following two options:

  • Build builds your application into a Player.
  • Build and Run builds your application in a Player, and opens that Player on your target platform.
Build Settings Window
Build Settings Window

The Unity build system for WebGLA JavaScript API that renders 2D and 3D graphics in a web browser. The Unity WebGL build option allows Unity to publish content as JavaScript programs which use HTML5 technologies and the WebGL rendering API to run Unity content in a web browser. More info
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supports the following settings:

Setting Function
Texture CompressionA method of storing data that reduces the amount of storage space it requires. See Texture Compression, Animation Compression, Audio Compression, Build Compression.
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Select from the available formatting options below to set the default texture compression3D Graphics hardware requires Textures to be compressed in specialized formats which are optimized for fast Texture sampling. More info
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format for the textures in the project. You can also use this setting to change from a script or using the command-line switch -setDefaultPlatformTextureFormat. For more information, refer to the texture compression format overview.This setting is also available in the Player settingsSettings that let you set various player-specific options for the final game built by Unity. More info
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window.
Use default format (DXT) This is the default compression format.
ETC This extension is part of the WebGL API and exposes the ETC compressed texture formatA file format for handling textures during real-time rendering by 3D graphics hardware, such as a graphics card or mobile device. More info
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.
ETC2 This extension is part of the WebGL API and exposes the ETC compressed texture format. Use this texture compression format if using OpenGL 4.3.
ASTC This texture compression format is widely used due to its wide range of derived compression ratios. For instance, ASTC compression is available for most Intel GPUs and Nvidia Tegra chips.
DXT This extension supports the DXTn/BCn compression format.
Development BuildA development build includes debug symbols and enables the Profiler. More info
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Enable this setting to include scripting debug symbols and the Profiler in your build. When you enable this, Unity sets the DEVELOPMENT_BUILD scripting define. Use this setting only when you want to test your application. Development builds don’t minify content because they’re large to distribute.
Code Optimization Select the optimization mode to use for compiling the WebGL code.
Speed This is the default setting. Select this to generate WebGL code that’s optimized for runtime performance.
Size Select this to generate WebGL code that’s optimized for build size. It helps in reducing WebGL games to the smallest downloadable size, and for large projects if a mobile browser (Android or iOS) refuses to load the default optimize-for-speed WebAssembly builds as too large for mobile devices to consume.
Autoconnect Profiler When enabled, you can automatically connect the Unity Profiler to your build. However, for WebGL, as you can’t connect the ProfilerA window that helps you to optimize your game. It shows how much time is spent in the various areas of your game. For example, it can report the percentage of time spent rendering, animating, or in your game logic. More info
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to a running build, use this option to connect the content to the Editor instead. This is because the WebSockets in WebGL handle the Profiler connection, whereas a web browser allows outgoing connections only from the content. For this setting to be available, you must enable the Development Build option.
Deep Profiling Support Enable this setting to activate Deep Profiling in the Unity Profiler. This makes the Profiler instrument every function call in your application and returns more detailed profiling data. When you enable Deep Profiling Support, it might slow down script execution. This option is only available if you enable the Development Build option.
IL2CPP Code Generation Define how Unity manages IL2CPP code generation. This option is only available if you are using IL2CPP for your scripting backend, not Mono. To change your scripting backend, go to Player Settings > Configuration > Scripting Backend and change from Mono to IL2CPP.
Faster runtime Generates code that’s optimized for runtime performance. This is the default behavior in previous versions of Unity.
Faster (smaller) builds Generates code that’s optimized for build size and iteration. It generates less code and produces a smaller build, but might have an impact on runtime performance, especially for generic code. You might want to use this option when faster build times are important, such as when iterating on changes
Build Use it build your application.
Build And Run Use it to view the WebGL Player locally. Unity uses a local web server to host your build, and opens it from a localhost URL. Alternatively, you can use a custom local web server with properly configured response headers. For more information, refer to Compressed builds and server configuration.

For changing the settings for Asset Import Overrides, refer to Build Settings.

Build folder

The Build folder has the following files, where [ExampleBuild] represents the name of the target build folder.

File name Contains
[ExampleBuild].loader.js The JavaScript code that the web page needs to load the Unity content.
[ExampleBuild].framework.js JavaScript runtime and plug-insA set of code created outside of Unity that creates functionality in Unity. There are two kinds of plug-ins you can use in Unity: Managed plug-ins (managed .NET assemblies created with tools like Visual Studio) and Native plug-ins (platform-specific native code libraries). More info
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.
[ExampleBuild].wasm WebAssembly binary.
[ExampleBuild].mem A binary image to initialize the heap memory for your Player. Unity only generates this file for multithreaded WebAssembly builds.
[ExampleBuild].data Asset data and ScenesA Scene contains the environments and menus of your game. Think of each unique Scene file as a unique level. In each Scene, you place your environments, obstacles, and decorations, essentially designing and building your game in pieces. More info
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.
[ExampleBuild].symbols.json Debug symbol names necessary to troubleshoot an error stack trace. This file is only generated for Release builds when you enable the Debug Symbols option (File > Build Settings > Player Settings.)
[ExampleBuild].jpg A background image, which displays while the build is loading. This file is only generated when a Background Image is available in Player Settings (File > Build Settings > Player Settings > Splash Image). For more information, refer to Splash Screen.

If you enable a Compression Method for your build, Unity identifies the extension that corresponds with the compression method and adds this extension to the names of the files inside the Build sub folder. If you enable Decompression Fallback, Unity appends the extension .unityweb to the build file names. Otherwise, Unity appends the extension .gz for the Gzip compression method, or .br for the Brotli compression method. For more information, refer to Compressed builds and server configuration.

If you enable Name Files As Hashes in the Player Settings, Unity uses the hash of the file content for each file in the build folder instead of the default file name. The Name File as Hashes option lets you upload updated versions of the game builds into the same folder on the server, and only upload the files which have changed between build iterations.

Note: If you open a Player directly from the file system, it might not work in some browsers due to security restrictions applied to local file URLs.

Deep profiling support

Enable the Deep Profiling Support setting to make the Unity Profiler profile every function call in your application. For more information, refer to the documentation on Deep Profiling.

Enable exceptions

  1. Open Publishing Settings to access Enable Exceptions, which help you specify how to handle unexpected code behavior (such as errors) at runtime. following options are available:

    • None: Select this if you don’t need any exception support. This gives the best performance and smallest builds. With this option, any exception thrown causes your content to stop with an error in that setting.
    • Explicitly Thrown Exceptions Only (default): Select this to capture exceptions that are explicitly specified from a throw statement in your scriptsA piece of code that allows you to create your own Components, trigger game events, modify Component properties over time and respond to user input in any way you like. More info
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      and to also ensure finally blocks are called. Note: This option makes the generated JavaScript code from your scripts longer and slower; however, it might only be an issue if scripts are the main bottleneck in your project.
    • Full Without Stacktrace: Select this option to capture:
      • Exceptions which are explicitly specified from throw statements in your scripts (the same as in the Explicitly Thrown Exceptions Only option)
      • Null References
      • Out of Bounds Array accesses
    • Full With Stacktrace: This option is similar to the option above but it also captures Stack traces. Unity generates these exceptions by embedding checks for them in the code, so this option decreases performance and increases browser memory usage. Only use this for debugging, and always test in a 64-bit browser.
  2. Select Publishing Settings to access Data Caching.

Data caching

This enables the browser to cache the main data files into the IndexedDB database. To access Data Caching, go to Publishing Settings via File > Build Settings > Player Settings > WebGL.

Using the default browser HTTP cache doesn’t guarantee that the browser caches a particular response. This is because the browser HTTP cache has limited space, and the browser might not be able to cache large files.

To improve your loading speed, IndexedDB allows you to cache files above the browser limit. When you cache more files, you increase the chance that downloaded content is available on the user’s machine during the next run of the build.

Data Caching caches the .data files in the IndexedDB cache for HTTP responses. To cache AssetBundles, you need to enable Data Caching and override unityInstance.Module.cacheControl(). To do this, make sure Module.cacheControl(url) returns must-revalidate for the requested AssetBundle URL. For example, you can override the unityInstance.Module.cacheControl() function in the fulfillment callback of the Promise that createUnityInstance() returns. For information on createUnityInstance(), refer to Compressed builds and server configuration.

Additional resources

Building and distributing a WebGL project
Reduce load times with AssetBundles