Version: 2022.3
Language : English
XR SDK Input subsystem
XR SDK Meshing subsystem

XR SDK Display subsystem

The XRAn umbrella term encompassing Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR) and Mixed Reality (MR) applications. Devices supporting these forms of interactive applications can be referred to as XR devices. More info
See in Glossary
SDK Display subsystem provides an interface for texture allocation, frame lifecycle, and blocking for cadence.

Texture allocation

Several device SDKs require that a texture is allocated through the SDK itself rather than the usual graphics APIs. If you use the XR SDK Display subsystem, you no longer need to rely on external plug-insA set of code created outside of Unity that creates functionality in Unity. There are two kinds of plug-ins you can use in Unity: Managed plug-ins (managed .NET assemblies created with tools like Visual Studio) and Native plug-ins (platform-specific native code libraries). More info
See in Glossary
to blitA shorthand term for “bit block transfer”. A blit operation is the process of transferring blocks of data from one place in memory to another.
See in Glossary
or copy into the SDK texture.

The Display subsystem enables a plug-in provider to allocate the texture. Where possible, Unity renders directly to the texture to avoid unnecessary copies. Unity can also allocate the texture for you if needed.

In the following cases, Unity can’t render directly to the texture and instead renders to intermediate textures and then blits or copies to your texture:

  • If image effects are in use, your texture will be last in the chain.
  • On PC with MSAA, Unity renders to a multisampled texture and then resolves into your texture at the end of the cameraA component which creates an image of a particular viewpoint in your scene. The output is either drawn to the screen or captured as a texture. More info
    See in Glossary
  • On mobile, with the multisample auto resolve extension, the texture will be implicitly resolved when the texture is flushed or used as a source or destination for any operation other than drawing to it. See EXT_multisampled_render_to_texture extension.
  • Deferred rendering, HDRhigh dynamic range
    See in Glossary
    , and command buffers cause Unity to render to intermediate textures.
  • If rendering to a subset of the screen, Unity renders to intermediate textures.
  • If the “texture layout” doesn’t match what Unity is rendering to (for example, Unity is rendering each eye to separate textures, but the RenderPass is configured to render to a texture array or a single texture).
  • If the kUnityXRRenderTextureFlagsLockedWidthHeight flag is set and renderScale is not 1.0.
  • If the kUnityXRRenderTextureFlagsWriteOnly flag is set and Unity needs to read back from the texture.


On both PC and mobile, the engine always resolves to the provider’s texture. The engine performs implicit resolve (on mobiles with multi-sample render to texture extension) or explicit resolve.

On mobile, providers should enable the kUnityXRRenderTextureFlagsAutoResolve flag and create their textures with 1 sample.


Use UnityXRFrameSetupHints.appSetup.sRGB to check if Unity expects to render to sRGB texture formats. The provider ultimately selects the output texture formatA file format for handling textures during real-time rendering by 3D graphics hardware, such as a graphics card or mobile device. More info
See in Glossary
from the colorFormat field of UnityXRRenderTextureDesc. If the format is an sRGB type, Unity turns sRGB writes on or off depending on the color space that the active project selects. You should always sample from any sRGB textures with sRGB to linear conversion in your compositor.

Depth textures

If your SDK needs depth information, you can obtain the depth bufferA memory store that holds the z-value depth of each pixel in an image, where the z-value is the depth for each rendered pixel from the projection plane. More info
See in Glossary
in the same way as the color buffer above. The nativeDepthTex value on the UnityXRRenderTextureDesc specifies the native resource. By default, Unity tries to share the depth buffer between textures with a similar desc if nativeDepthTex is set to kUnityXRRenderTextureIdDontCare.

If your SDK does not need depth information, you should set UnityXRRenderTextureDesc::depthFormat to kUnityXRDepthTextureFormatNone to avoid unnecessary resolves.

Handling double and triple buffering

During submission (see the Submitting frames in-flight section below), you can specify a different texture ID each frame in order to handle the case where the SDK needs to double- or triple-buffer images that Unity is rendering to. The provider plug-in is responsible for managing the collection of UnityXRRenderTextureIds.

Frame lifecycle

There are two methods responsible for the lifecycle of a frame: PopulateNextFrameDesc, which happens right before rendering begins, and SubmitCurrentFrame, which happens immediately after rendering has completed. Both methods are called on the graphics thread.

During PopulateNextFrameDesc, the display provider is expected to do the following:

  • Wait for cadence (wait until Unity should start submitting rendering commands again). Alternatively, this can be done in SubmitCurrentFrame.
  • Acquire the next image and tell Unity what texture IDs to render to next via the nextFrame parameter.

During the SubmitCurrentFrame method, the display provider is expected to do the following:

  • Submit the last frame in-flight (for example, eye textures or depth textures) to display on the screen.
  • Wait for cadence, as an alternative to waiting during PopulateNextFrameDesc.

Blocking for cadence

To maintain the lowest possible latency and maximal throughput when rendering to an HMD display, you need to ensure precise timing when you obtain poses and submit textures. Each HMD has a native refresh rate that their compositor runs at. Rendering any faster than that rate results in a sub-optimal experience because of mismatched timing or redundant work.

Unity expects the display provider to block, or wait for frame cadence, during the frame lifecycle. Unity starts submitting rendering commands shortly after ‘waking up’ from the blocking call. You should synchronize the wake-up time to your compositor within a particular window. Some SDKs provide a floating wake-up time window based on heuristics. Meta/Oculus calls this the “queue ahead” (see Oculus developer documentation for more information). Valve calls it “running start” (see slides 18 and 19 of this presentation).

Unity waits on the frame lifecycle to complete before it starts submitting pose-dependent graphics commands.

Where to wait for cadence

Providers can wait for cadence in either PopulateNextFrameDesc or in SubmitCurrentFrame.

While Unity submits graphics commands for a frame on the graphics thread, the next frame’s simulation loop is running on the main thread. It contains physics, script logic, etc. PopulateNextFrameDesc is called on the graphics thread after all rendering commands have been submitted, and only after the simulation of the next frame and all graphics jobs scheduled on it are complete. One of the graphics job that PopulateNextFrameDesc waits for is SubmitCurrentFrame for the current frame. This is why it’s valid to wait for cadence in SubmitCurrentFrame. Furthermore, Unity doesn’t start rendering until PopulateNextFrameDesc is complete.

With these details in mind, there are some trade-offs to waiting for cadence in SubmitCurrentFrame as opposed to PopulateNextFrameDesc. For example, waiting for cadence in SubmitCurrentFrame can cause performance issues if the application schedules expensive graphics jobs during simulation. Because SubmitCurrentFrame is scheduled to run after rendering, the graphics jobs that the application scheduled will run after SubmitCurrentFrame, but before PopulateNextFrameDesc. In this case, the provider is waiting in SubmitCurrentFrame, then it wakes up expecting Unity to begin rendering. However, Unity processes the graphics jobs the application scheduled before it calls PopulateNextFrameDesc, which in turn allows Unity to start rendering. This delay between waking up for rendering and processing the graphics jobs scheduled in the update method could cause latency. Developers can optimize this by scheduling their graphics jobs after rendering to ensure the graphics jobs are scheduled before SubmitCurrentFrame.

While the Provider waiting for cadence in SubmitCurrentFrame allows computing graphics jobs to run in parallel to the main thread, waiting for cadence in PopulateNextFrameDesc blocks the Unity main thread entirely. This is acceptable because simulation and other graphics jobs have already completed. Problems might occur when the simulation or graphics thread take up far too much time and exceed the device’s target frame rate. This can cause frame rates to be cut in half while PopulateNextFrameDesc waits for the next cycle in the cadence.

Submitting frames in-flight

When Unity calls SubmitCurrentFrame, the textures that you’ve set up last frame have been rendered to, or Unity has submitted render commands to the graphics driver to render them. Unity is now done with them and you can pass them on to your compositor.

Filling out next frame descriptor

After blocking or acquiring the next frame to render to, you must tell Unity which textures to render to in the next frame, and what’s the layout of the render passes (see Render Passes below).

Render passes

A UnityXRRenderPass can involve a culling pass and a sceneA Scene contains the environments and menus of your game. Think of each unique Scene file as a unique level. In each Scene, you place your environments, obstacles, and decorations, essentially designing and building your game in pieces. More info
See in Glossary
graph traversal. This is a resource-intensive operation, and you should try to limit the number of times Unity performs it via tricks like single-pass rendering.

Each UnityXRRenderPass contains an output texture (which can be a texture array), and output UnityXRRenderParams such as view, projection matrices, and the rect to render to or the texture array slice.

For each frame, the display Provider sets up a UnityXRRenderPass and fills out the UnityXRRenderTextureIds that Unity will render to the next frame.

Use cases for UnityXRRenderPass include the following:

  • Two-pass stereo rendering (2 RenderPass x 1 RenderParams)
  • Single-pass stereo rendering (1 RenderPass x 2 RenderParams)

The API supports these additional cases (but Unity might not react correctly right now):

  • QuadA primitive object that resembles a plane but its edges are only one unit long, it uses only 4 vertices, and the surface is oriented in the XY plane of the local coordinate space. More info
    See in Glossary
    pass wide FOV stereo rendering (4 RenderPass x 1 RenderParams)
  • Single-pass + wide FOV stereo rendering (1 RenderPass x 2 RenderParams + 2 RenderPass x 1 RenderParams)
  • Foveated rendering:
    • Two separate textures for each eye (inner and outer)
    • One texture, UV fitting
  • External view scenario (HoloLens BEV, Mayo 3rd eye) (extra RenderPass)
  • Near / far rendering for compositing objects or people in scene (2 RenderPass, different projections, different targets)

It’s safe to make these assumptions:

  • One texture per pass (singlepass is a one texture-array)
  • If single-pass, two pose / projections per pass (or foveated rendering)

Note: The Unity project and XR SDK must use the same setting (enabled/disabled) for single-pass rendering, because this setting affects user shadersA program that runs on the GPU. More info
See in Glossary
. To check if single-pass rendering is enabled, use UnityXRFrameSetupHints.appSetup.singlePassRendering.

Culling passes

Two rendering passes can share a culling pass if their cullingPassIndexes are set to the same value. The cullingPassIndex selects which UnityXRCullingPass to use. Culling passes must be filled out in UnityXRNextFrameDesc.

XR SDK Input subsystem
XR SDK Meshing subsystem