Version: 2023.1
LanguageEnglish
• C#

Quaternion

struct in UnityEngine

/

Implemented in:UnityEngine.CoreModule

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Description

Quaternions are used to represent rotations.

A quaternion is a four-tuple of real numbers {x,y,z,w}. A quaternion is a mathematically convenient alternative to the euler angle representation. You can interpolate a quaternion without experiencing gimbal lock. You can also use a quaternion to concatenate a series of rotations into a single representation.

Unity internally uses Quaternions to represent all rotations.

In most cases, you can use existing rotations from methods such as Transform.localRotation or Transform.rotation to construct new rotations. For example, use existing rotations to smoothly interpolate between two rotations. The most used Quaternion functions are as follows: Quaternion.LookRotation, Quaternion.Angle, Quaternion.Euler, Quaternion.Slerp, Quaternion.FromToRotation, and Quaternion.identity.

You can use the Quaternion.operator * to rotate one rotation by another, or to rotate a vector by a rotation.

Note that Unity expects Quaternions to be normalized.

Static Properties

 identity The identity rotation (Read Only).

Properties

 eulerAngles Returns or sets the euler angle representation of the rotation. normalized Returns this quaternion with a magnitude of 1 (Read Only). this[int] Access the x, y, z, w components using [0], [1], [2], [3] respectively. w W component of the Quaternion. Do not directly modify quaternions. x X component of the Quaternion. Don't modify this directly unless you know quaternions inside out. y Y component of the Quaternion. Don't modify this directly unless you know quaternions inside out. z Z component of the Quaternion. Don't modify this directly unless you know quaternions inside out.

Constructors

 Quaternion Constructs new Quaternion with given x,y,z,w components.

Public Methods

 Set Set x, y, z and w components of an existing Quaternion. SetFromToRotation Creates a rotation which rotates from fromDirection to toDirection. SetLookRotation Creates a rotation with the specified forward and upwards directions. ToAngleAxis Converts a rotation to angle-axis representation (angles in degrees). ToString Returns a formatted string for this quaternion.

Static Methods

 Angle Returns the angle in degrees between two rotations a and b. AngleAxis Creates a rotation which rotates angle degrees around axis. Dot The dot product between two rotations. Euler Returns a rotation that rotates z degrees around the z axis, x degrees around the x axis, and y degrees around the y axis; applied in that order. FromToRotation Creates a rotation from fromDirection to toDirection. Inverse Returns the Inverse of rotation. Lerp Interpolates between a and b by t and normalizes the result afterwards. LerpUnclamped Interpolates between a and b by t and normalizes the result afterwards. The parameter t is not clamped. LookRotation Creates a rotation with the specified forward and upwards directions. Normalize Converts this quaternion to one with the same orientation but with a magnitude of 1. RotateTowards Rotates a rotation from towards to. Slerp Spherically linear interpolates between unit quaternions a and b by a ratio of t. SlerpUnclamped Spherically linear interpolates between unit quaternions a and b by t.

Operators

 operator * Combines rotations lhs and rhs. operator == Are two quaternions equal to each other?