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Representation of 3D vectors and points.

This structure is used throughout Unity to pass 3D positions and directions around. It also contains functions for doing common vector operations.

Besides the functions listed below, other classes can be used to manipulate vectors and points as well. For example the Quaternion and the Matrix4x4 classes are useful for rotating or transforming vectors and points.

Static Variables

backShorthand for writing Vector3(0, 0, -1).
downShorthand for writing Vector3(0, -1, 0).
forwardShorthand for writing Vector3(0, 0, 1).
leftShorthand for writing Vector3(-1, 0, 0).
oneShorthand for writing Vector3(1, 1, 1).
rightShorthand for writing Vector3(1, 0, 0).
upShorthand for writing Vector3(0, 1, 0).
zeroShorthand for writing Vector3(0, 0, 0).


magnitudeReturns the length of this vector (Read Only).
normalizedReturns this vector with a magnitude of 1 (Read Only).
sqrMagnitudeReturns the squared length of this vector (Read Only).
this[int]Access the x, y, z components using [0], [1], [2] respectively.
xX component of the vector.
yY component of the vector.
zZ component of the vector.


Vector3Creates a new vector with given x, y, z components.

Public Functions

SetSet x, y and z components of an existing Vector3.
ToStringReturns a nicely formatted string for this vector.

Static Functions

AngleReturns the angle in degrees between from and to.
ClampMagnitudeReturns a copy of vector with its magnitude clamped to maxLength.
CrossCross Product of two vectors.
DistanceReturns the distance between a and b.
DotDot Product of two vectors.
LerpLinearly interpolates between two vectors.
LerpUnclampedLinearly interpolates between two vectors.
MaxReturns a vector that is made from the largest components of two vectors.
MinReturns a vector that is made from the smallest components of two vectors.
MoveTowardsMoves a point current in a straight line towards a target point.
OrthoNormalizeMakes vectors normalized and orthogonal to each other.
ProjectProjects a vector onto another vector.
ProjectOnPlaneProjects a vector onto a plane defined by a normal orthogonal to the plane.
ReflectReflects a vector off the plane defined by a normal.
RotateTowardsRotates a vector current towards target.
ScaleMultiplies two vectors component-wise.
SlerpSpherically interpolates between two vectors.
SlerpUnclampedSpherically interpolates between two vectors.
SmoothDampGradually changes a vector towards a desired goal over time.


operator -Subtracts one vector from another.
operator !=Returns true if vectors different.
operator *Multiplies a vector by a number.
operator /Divides a vector by a number.
operator +Adds two vectors.
operator ==Returns true if the vectors are equal.