The properties that a Material’s inspector displays are determined by the Shader that the Material uses. A Shader is a specialized kind of graphical program that determines how texture and lighting information is combined to generate the pixels of the rendered GameObject onscreen. See the documentation on Shaders for in-depth information about how Shaders are used in a Unity Project.
The standard Shader presents you with a list of material parameters. You can use these parameters to recreate the look of almost any real-world surface. For in-depth information on these material parameters, see the Material Parameters documentation.