Unity uses a technique called shadow mapping to render real-time shadows.
Shadow mapping uses textures called shadow maps. Shadow maps are similar to depth textures. A Light generates a shadow map in a similar way to how a CameraA component which creates an image of a particular viewpoint in your scene. The output is either drawn to the screen or captured as a texture. More info
See in Glossary generates a depth texture. If you imagine a Camera at the same location as the Light, the areas of the SceneA Scene contains the environments and menus of your game. Think of each unique Scene file as a unique level. In each Scene, you place your environments, obstacles, and decorations, essentially designing and building your game in pieces. More info
See in Glossary that the Camera cannot see are the same areas of the Scene that rays from the Light cannot reach; therefore, they are in shadow.
Unity populates the shadow map with information about how far rays from the Light travel before they hit a surface, and then samples the shadow map to calculate real-time shadows for GameObjectsThe fundamental object in Unity scenes, which can represent characters, props, scenery, cameras, waypoints, and more. A GameObject’s functionality is defined by the Components attached to it. More info
See in Glossary that the Light hits.
For more information on shadow mapping, see the Wikipedia Page on shadow mapping.
To calculate the resolution of a shadow map, Unity:
Determines the area of the screen view that the Light can illuminate. For directional lights, the whole screen can be illuminated. For Spot Lights and Point lights, the area is the onscreen projection of the shape of the light’s extent: a sphere for point lights, or a cone for Spot Lights. The projected shape has a width and height in pixels on the screen; the larger of those two values is then taken. This value is called the Light’s pixelThe smallest unit in a computer image. Pixel size depends on your screen resolution. Pixel lighting is calculated at every screen pixel. More info
See in Glossary size.
Performs the following calculation, and then clamps the result to the maximum size:
|Light type:||Formula:||Maxium resolution, in pixels:|
|Directional||NextPowerOfTwo (pixel size * shadow quality multiplier * 3.0)||4096 x 4096 when Shadow Resolution is Very High Quality and/or if the GPU has 512MB or more of RAM, 2048 x 2048 otherwise.|
|Spot Lights||NextPowerOfTwo (pixel size * shadow quality multiplier * 2.0)||2048 x 2048 if the GPU has 512MB or more of RAM, 1024 x 1024 otherwise.|
|Point Lights||NextPowerOfTwo (pixel size * shadow quality multiplier * 1.0)||1024 x 1024 if the GPU has 512MB or more of RAM, 512 x 512 otherwise.|
Point lights have a lower limit on size than the other types because they use cubemaps for shadows. This means that six cubemapA collection of six square textures that can represent the reflections in an environment or the skybox drawn behind your geometry. The six squares form the faces of an imaginary cube that surrounds an object; each face represents the view along the directions of the world axes (up, down, left, right, forward and back). More info
See in Glossary faces at this resolution must be kept in video memory at once. They are also quite expensive to render, as potential shadow casters might need to be rendered into all six cubemap faces.
In the Built-in Render Pipeline, you can set the resolution of a Light’s shadow map by setting the Light.shadowCustomResolution property to a value greater than 0. When this value is greater than 0, Unity performs the following calculation for all Light types:
It then clamps the maximum resolution based on Light type and hardware, as shown in the table above.
Note that the
shadowCustomResolution property is supported only in the Built-in Render Pipeline. It is not supported in the High Definition Render Pipeline (HDRP) or in the Universal Render Pipeline (URP).