Version: 2018.2 (switch to 2018.3b or 2017.4)
Circle Collider 2D
Polygon Collider 2D
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Box Collider 2D

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The Box Collider__An invisible shape that is used to handle physical collisions for an object. A collider doesn’t need to be exactly the same shape as the object’s mesh - a rough approximation is often more efficient and indistinguishable in gameplay. More info
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2D__ componentA functional part of a GameObject. A GameObject can contain any number of components. Unity has many built-in components, and you can create your own by writing scripts that inherit from MonoBehaviour. More info
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is a Collider for use with 2D physics. Its shape is a rectangle with a defined position, width and height in the local coordinate space of a SpriteA 2D graphic objects. If you are used to working in 3D, Sprites are essentially just standard textures but there are special techniques for combining and managing sprite textures for efficiency and convenience during development. More info
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. Note that the rectangle is axis-aligned - that is, its edges are parallel to the X or Y axes of local space.

Property Function
MaterialAn asset that defines how a surface should be rendered, by including references to the Textures it uses, tiling information, Color tints and more. The available options for a Material depend on which Shader the Material is using. More info
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A physics Material that determines properties of collisionsA collision occurs when the physics engine detects that the colliders of two GameObjects make contact or overlap, when at least one has a rigidbody component and is in motion. More info
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, such as friction and bounce.
Is Trigger Check this box if you want the Box ColliderA cube-shaped collider component that handles collisions for GameObjects like dice and ice cubes. More info
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2D to behave as a trigger.
Used by Effector Check this box if you want the Box Collider 2D to be used by an attached Effector 2D component.
Used by Composite Tick this checkbox if you want this Collider to be used by an attached Composite Collider 2D.

When you enable Used by Composite, other properties disappear from the Box Collider 2D component, because they are now controlled by the attached Composite Collider 2D. The properties that disappear from the Box Collider 2D are Material, Is Trigger, Used By Effector, and Edge Radius.
Auto Tiling Tick this checkbox if the Sprite RendererA component that lets you display images as Sprites for use in both 2D and 3D scenes. More info
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component for the selected Sprite has the Draw Mode set to Tiled. This enables automatic updates to the shape of the Collider 2D, meaning that the shape is automatically readjusted when the Sprite’s dimensions change. If you don’t enable Auto Tiling, the Collider 2D geometry doesn’t automatically repeat.
Offset Set the local offset of the Collider 2D geometry.
Size Set the size of the box in local space units.
Edge Radius Controls a radius around edges, so that vertices are circular. This results in a larger Collider 2D with rounded convex corners. The default value for this setting is 0 (no radius).

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Circle Collider 2D
Polygon Collider 2D